My first attempt at photographing the moon was a dismal failure. I went for aperture priority mode and ended up with overexposed shots at a variety of apertures and long exposure times. A quick googling told me to shoot at ISO 100, f/16, 1/125 sec exposure. Because of my camera sensor's aspect ratio of 1.6, the 200mm focal length of my telephoto lens gives me an actual focal length of 320mm. Not quite a telescope, but as you can see, it's decent resolution.
That was my ticket to the moon. Here are a couple of different shots with varying attempts at post-processing:
In the first shot, I used a combination of Color Efex Pro and Silver Efex Pro (B&W conversion) at about 50% opacity to give it a touch of color.
This next shot is just straight Silver Efex Pro with a Plus 1N push: